Ancient India Simplified: Six Schools of Philosophy perfected during Gupta period.

 The Gupta period witnessed progress in all spheres: art, architecture, literature, science and technology, metallurgy and philosophy and hence is rightly called the golden period of Ancient history of India.

Six Schools of Philosophy

PhilosophyFounder Core/Essence of this philosophy
Samkhya(Enumeration)Kapila1. Propounds that the universe as consisting of two independent realities: puruṣa(‘consciousness’) and prakṛiti (‘matter’) and which attempts to develop metaphysics based on this duality.
2. Soul can attain liberation only through real knowledge acquired through observation, inference and words.
Yoga (Application)PatanjaliIt is believed that practicing  Ashtanga Yoga will lead to liberation.
The syllable OM forms its core.
Nyaya (Analysis)Aksapada GautamaBased on a system of reasoning, clear thinking and logical argument which are essential means to salvation.
Vaisheshika (School of individual characteristics)Kanada (Uluka/Kashyapa)1. Complementary to Nyayya.Analytic and objective philosophy of the world.
2. Postualted dualism of matter and soul.
3. Salvation depends on fully recognising the atomic nature of the universe and its difference from this soul.
4. This philosophy is interested in Physics.
Mimamsa (Enquiry)YaminiRationalises vedic rituals and Yajnas and regards the vedas as eternal.
Vedanta (the end of the vedas)  or Uttara MimamsaBadrayana and later Shakaracharya1. The influence of Upanishads on this school of thought is predominant.
2. It is a monistic school of philosophy that believes the world is unreal and the only reality is Brahman.
3. Sub-branches of Vedanta are: Advaita, Visishtadvaita, Dvaita, Dvaitadvaita.

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