1. Three Crowned Kings ruled Tamilakam which comprised that part of India south of the Maurya Empire in 250 BCE. ( The land south of Krishna River).
2. They are mentioned by Megasthenes and the Edicts of Ashoka, and first in Tolkappiyam among Tamil literature who was the first to call them Three Glorified by Heaven.
3. The sangam literature speaks highly of these three south Indian Kingdoms.
4. The history of these south Indian kingdoms always marked continuous fight among these muvenders (three chiefs).
|Cholas||Uraiyur (Later shifted to Pushkar)||Tiger||Puharm(Kaveripattinam)|
|Cheras||Vanji or Karur||Bow||Muziris, Tondi, Bandar|
|Pandyas||Madurai||Carp (Fish)||Korkai, Saliyur|
|The Cholas||1. Ruled Cholamandalum or Coromandel coast.|
2. Chief centre of political power was Uraiyur, a famous place for cotton trade.
3. Famous king Krikala ‘Man with charred leg’.The chola maintained an efficient navy.
4. At the beginning of the 4th century, they declined for some time due to the rise of Pallavas.
|The Pandyas||1. Situated at the southern tip of the Indian Peninsula.|
2. Megasthenes, Greek ambassador in the Mauryan court mentions the Pandyan kingdom and calls them the kingdom of Pearls.
3. Megasthenes also mentions a Queen who ruled the Pandyan kingdom (Matriarchal Influence).
4. Madurai was its capital.
5. Marco Polo, an Italian traveller, visited the Pandyan kingdom.
6. The rulers had brahminical faith but were tolerant to all religions.
7. Pandyan kings sent ambassadors to Roman emperor Augustus and Trojan.
|The Cheras||1. Situated on the western coast of India (Malabar Coast).|
2. Capital was Vanji.
3. The greatest Chera king was Senaguttuvan, the Red Chera or Good Chera.
4. Had trade relations with Romans and Egypts.
5. Important sea port was Muzuris. Roman people also built a temple of Augustus at this port.
6. Main trade: Spices and ivory as the region was rich in elephants.