[Model Answer QP2020 GS4 Ethics] “Hatred is destructive of a person’s wisdom and conscience that can poison a nation’s spirit.’ Do you agree with this view? Justify your answer.


1. Hatred is an intense feeling of deep anger, dislike, or hostility towards someone or something.
2. In the ethical context, hatred is generally seen as a negative emotion that can lead to harmful actions and behaviours.
3. Hatred often arises from fear, ignorance, or perceived threat, and it can fuel discrimination, violence, and other forms of harm.
4. Ethically, it is considered a destructive emotion as it goes against the principles of respect, tolerance, and compassion for others.


1. Wisdom goes beyond mere knowledge or intelligence. It is the ability to discern what is true, right, and lasting, to see things as they really are, and to act accordingly.
2. It also involves the ability to consider the consequences of one’s actions on others and to make decisions that promote the well-being of both one and others.
3. Ethically wise individuals often demonstrate empathy, humility, and a keen sense of social justice.


1. Conscience is the internal sense of what is right and wrong that guides an individual’s behaviour.
2. It’s often described as a “moral compass,” providing direction for ethical decision-making.
3. In the ethical context, conscience is crucial because it encourages personal responsibility and integrity. It serves as a check on selfish or harmful impulses and prompts individuals to act in ways that are consistent with moral and social norms.
4. A functioning conscience is necessary for empathy, fairness, and social cooperation.

Hatred, Wisdom, and Conscience in the context of national spirit

1. At a national level, hatred can manifest as widespread prejudice, xenophobia, or bigotry against certain groups. This can lead to harmful policies, social unrest, or even violent conflict, significantly damaging the national spirit.
2. Hatred can isolate communities, breed fear and hostility, and undermine social cohesion and harmony.
3. It often results in a nation focusing on differences and divisions rather than shared goals and values.
When a nation’s spirit is governed by wisdom and a robust conscience, it promotes peace, progress, and unity. In contrast, if a nation’s spirit is poisoned by hatred, it can lead to conflict, division, and a decline in moral standards. Hence, it’s crucial to nurture wisdom and conscience at both individual and national levels and strive towards a society free of hatred.

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