‘State actor’ is used in the context where one government supports an actor in the performance of an act or acts of terrorism against the other often deemed as a state sponsor.
Challenges posed by external state actors:
1. Increasing activities of Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) in Nepal changed the nature of the border completely. It has ties with the Taliban and other radical groups. These groups have recently been involved with the radicalization of the Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh. Groups such as the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), the Haqqani Network and the Taliban have repeatedly been used by Pakistan as instruments to help it achieve its foreign policy objectives in India and Afghanistan.
2. China’s People’s Liberation Army continues to deploy construction equipment for road works. It uses spider excavators to build roads in the border area.
3. China’s growing assertiveness in the region could be aimed at pushing Bhutan to agree to swap Doklam. China is setting up villages in uninhabited tri-junction stretches between India, Bhutan and China, which are intended to support Chinese military facilities.
4. China is not following the resolution mechanism of maritime disputes in reference to the South China Sea where China is flexing its military muscle despite an international tribunal verdict (UNCLOS) going against it.
Non-State Actors are Organisations and individuals not connected with, directed by, or funded through the government are non-state actors. They can be corporations, NGOs, and even paramilitary and armed resistance groups.
Challenges posed by external non-state actors:
1. Growing vulnerability of the coastline and also of the airspace, for example, Mumbai and Purulia incidents.
2. Insurgency, illegal migration from Bangladesh and smuggling activities reflect the porosity (concern highlighted in Kargil Review Committee) of our borders.
3. The deep-rooted nexus between drug mafias, arms dealers, and money launderers for financing terrorism.
Measures taken to combat these threats.
1. Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted by the NDA government to prevent money-laundering and to provide for confiscation of property derived from money-laundering.
2. National Cyber Security Policy 2013: To build a secure and resilient cyberspace for citizens, businesses and Government
3. Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act 1967: is an Indian law aimed at prevention of unlawful activities associations in India. Its main objective was to make powers available for dealing with activities directed against the integrity and sovereignty of India.
4. National Security Advisor: The National Security Advisor (NSA) is tasked with regularly advising the Prime Minister of India on all matters relating to internal and external threats and opportunities to India, and oversees strategic and sensitive issues on behalf of the Prime Minister.(India). The NSA receives all intelligence (R&AW, IB, NTRO, MI, DIA, NIA) reports and co-ordinates them to present before the Prime Minister.
5. The National Investigation Agency (NIA): is the primary counter-terrorist task force of India. The agency is empowered to deal with the investigation of terror related crimes across states without special permission from the states under written proclamation from the Ministry of Home Affairs.
Measures Required to combat these threats:
1. Effective coordination between agencies horizontally.
2. Cooperation between centre and states. (Especially the law enforcement agencies)
3. Collaboration between media, public and law enforcement agencies.
4. Increase manpower in internal security agencies.
5. Robust cyber security architecture to thwart any cyber attacks such as cyber-warfare or cyber terrorism.