[Model Answer QP2022 GS1] Elucidate the relationship between globalization and new technology in a world of scarce resources, with special reference to India.

Globalization is the process by which ideas, knowledge, information, goods and services spread around the world.  According to WHO, globalization can be defined as ” the increased interconnectedness and interdependence” of peoples and countries.
Technology has played a pivotal role in speeding up globalization, while globalization itself has been a constant driving force for the newer technologies to surface. Thus, it can be said that globalization and technology have evolved as a twin phenomenon.

Globalisation ,Technology and Scarce Resources

1. The eighteenth century brought about the first industrial revolution that led to emergence of energy and motion through the invention of the steam engine. And, in turn, it promoted automation of factories, mining, textile industries etc. resulting in improved productivity and faster movements of people and goods to and from places.This resulted in resource use efficiency
2. Then came the second industrial revolution in the nineteenth century that witnessed the invention of electricity . Electricity further helped in speedy industrialization and made fast travel possible. Hence the second revolution further strengthened globalisation.  The globalisation of electricity has made the world realise the significance of renewable energy and the world as one is making an effort to improve energy efficiency. Ex: Paris Agreement and the International Solar Alliance. 
3. Furthermore the IR 3.0 and IR 4.0 have made information accessibility more easy and hence the world has truly become a global village. Also Globalization Helps Spread Knowledge and Technology Across Borders. This has made learning and awareness building about the conservation of resources and saving planet earth possible at the scale of the planet.

Globalisation ,Technology and Scarce Resources with special reference to India

1. Indians are known for IT and Biotechnological prowess. Ex: Bangalore – silicon valley of India. This has helped information as a resource to be used efficiently.
2. India plays a prime part in globalisation of conservation of nature. Ex: India’s leadership in renewable energy technology. For instance, the International Solar Alliance. 
3. India’s global cooperation with countries like Russia  (Gaganyaan), US (NISAR Satellites) for best utilization of expensive resources. This has made India master in the field of Space. 
4. In the realm of Disaster management, Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) has India save not only lives but also scarce resources in India as well as around the world.
Technological progress is a key driver of improvements in incomes and standards of living. But new knowledge and technologies do not necessarily develop everywhere and at the same time. Therefore, the way technology spreads across countries is central to how global growth is generated and shared across countries. For this globalisation is more than a necessity.

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