[Model Answer QP2022 GS2]Critically examine the procedures through which the President of India and France are elected.

India follows the Parliamentary form of government wherein the Prime Minister is the real head and hence the head of the government and the President is a nominal head and hence deemed as the head of the State.
France has a semi-presidential system of government, with both a President and a Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is responsible to the French Parliament. A presidential candidate is required to obtain a nationwide majority of non-blank votes at either the first or second round of balloting, which implies that the President is somewhat supported by at least half of the voting population. As a consequence, the President of France is the pre-eminent figure in French politics. He appoints the Prime Minister.

The procedures through which the President of India is elected: 

  1. The President of India is elected by indirect election
  2. A system of proportional representation using the single transferable vote and the voting is by secret ballot. The candidate with the highest number of votes is selected.
  3. To be declared elected to the office of president, candidates must secure a fixed quota of votes which can be calculated by
  4. Electoral quota = [Total number of valid votes polled/1+1=2] +1

The procedures through which the President of France is elected

  1. Directly elected by the two-round system (TRS), also known as runoff voting, second ballot, or ballotage. 
  2. After eliminating all others except the top 2 only the two candidates with the most votes qualify for the second round. The candidate with the absolute majority of votes cast is finally elected. 
  3. The five-year term of the President is renewable once.
Presidential Election of France Presidential Election of India
The Candidate should be above 23 years.The candidate should be above 35 years.
Directly elected by the people.Indirectly elected by the elected members of the Parliament and State Assemblies.
The candidate must be backed by at least 500 elected representatives. The candidate must be subscribed by at least 50 electors as proposers and 50 as seconders. 
The term is 5 years and can stay for the maximum of two terms only. The candidate can stand for elections any number of times.
The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and MPs are elected after the presidential election. MPs and MLAs elect the president.
The president chairs the cabinet meetings.The president is the nominal head. 
Both the democratic systems are unique and are suitable to the current geographical, cultural, historical and social set up of their respective countries.

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