[Model Answer QP2022 GS3] Discuss the type of organised crimes. Describe the linkages between terrorists and organised crime that exist at the national and transnational levels.

Organised crime involves organisations where criminal activities are planned and controlled by powerful groups and carried out on a large scale. In other words, highly centralised enterprises set up for the purpose of engaging in illegal activities.
 Such organisations engage in offences such as cargo theft, fraud, robbery, kidnapping for ransom, and the demanding of “protection” payments. 
The principal source of income for these criminal syndicates is the supply of goods and services that are illegal but for which there is continued public demand, such as drugs, prostitution, loan-sharking (i.e., usury), and gambling.

 Type of organised crimes

  1. Money laundering

It is a way by which illegal money earned from sources such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, etc. are diverted to create an impression that such money comes from a legitimate source. This crime is specifically governed by the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002.

  1. Smuggling

 It is natural that the goods which are illegal in the territory of India or heavily taxed are smuggled to continue their trade or maintain profits. Most items such as contraband substances, valuable jewels, electronics, certain fabrics, etc. which are smuggled in India.This is mostly governed by the Customs Act, 1962.

  1. Drug trafficking 

It is located between the Golden Triangle (Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos) on the northeast and Golden Crescent (Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran) on the northwest- both of which are the two largest sources of illicit drugs in Asia. 

  1. Human trafficking: 

 This involves women trafficking, child trafficking, trading in sex workers, etc. Article 23 of the Indian Constitution explicitly prohibits human trafficking. 

  1. Contract killings and kidnapping:

Contract killings means murdering someone for money on a contractual basis.
kidnapping incidents are also prevalent wherein people pay a certain sum of money to get someone kidnapped or these criminals ask someone for a ransom. Such crimes are performed by organised criminals who do such tasks on a regular basis.

Linkages between terrorists and organised crime: 

  1. In India, the linkages between the two exist at national and transnational levels
  2. At the national level, both terrorists and those involved in organized crime are within India.
    1. There are also several insurgent groups that over some time have morphed into crime syndicates. What began as an ideological movement is now merely a means of generating profit. This is especially the case with insurgent groups in Northeast India.
    2. In addition to this, kidnapping has been used extensively for spreading terror and raising funds. Human trafficking, drug trafficking, and gun-running are some of the other criminal activities that have been common in these areas(North east).
  3. At the international level, collaboration exists between transnational syndicates and terrorists from inside and outside India
    1. Significant relationship between organized crime and terrorism, especially in Kashmir, is through the spread of counterfeit currency. 
In 2019, the Security Council adopted resolution 2482, which urged Member States to address the links between terrorism and organized crime, by adopting policy measures.
UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) fights links between organized crime and terrorism through a variety of projects. This includes initiatives on improving border management, such as profiling high-risk passengers and cargo, on facilitating international cooperation, and on combating the financing of terrorism.

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