[Model Answer QP2022 GS4 Ethics]Write short notes on the following in 30 words each: 1. Constitutional morality 2. Conflict of Interest 3. Probity in public life 4. Challenges of digitalization 5. Devotion to duty

1. Constitutional morality

1. Constitutional morality in its strictest sense implies a strict and complete adherence to the constitutional principles as enshrined in the various segments of the document. 
2. It is required that all constitutional functionaries “cultivate and develop a spirit of constitutionalism” where every action taken by them is governed by and is in strict conformity with the basic tenets of the Constitution.”
3. According to B.R. Ambedkar, Constitutional Morality is not a natural sentiment. It has to be cultivated.
4. The democratic values survive and become successful where the people at large and the person in charge of the institution are strictly guided by the constitutional parameters without paving the path of deviancy and reflecting in action the primary concern to maintain institutional integrity and the requisite constitutional restraints. 
5. Commitment to the constitution is a facet of constitutional morality.

2. Conflict of Interest

1. A conflict between the private interests and the official or professional responsibilities of a person in a position of trust. In other words, conflict of interest arises when what is in a person’s best interest is not in the best interest of another person or organization to which that individual owes loyalty.
2. In business and law, having a “fiduciary responsibility” to someone is known as having a “duty of loyalty.” For example, auditors owe a duty of loyalty to investors who rely upon the financial reports that the auditors certify. But auditors are hired and paid directly by the companies whose reports they review. The duty of loyalty an auditor owes to investors can be at odds with the auditor’s need to keep the company – its client – happy, as well as with the company’s desire to look like a safe investment.
3. It is a clash that most often occurs between requirements and interests.
4. “When in doubt, ask” is an old saying that makes a great deal of sense when working through conflicts of interest. There is no harm in asking, but there could be a great deal of harm to an individual, the organization, or both, by not asking. It is always best to be transparent and accountable to ensure we eliminate either the perceived or actual conflict of interest.

3. Probity in public life

1. Probity means having Impeccably strong moral behaviour in public life.
2. Probity  encompasses all good values and virtues.
3. Probity in public life is the standard that society expects from those elected or appointed to public office to observe and maintain in their conduct.
4. Maintaining probity in governance involves more than simply avoiding corrupt or dishonest conduct. It means ethical behaviour that upholds public values and ensures impartiality, accountability and transparency which, in turn, gives people confidence to participate in the Governance process.
5. Probity in public life is an essential and vital requirement for an efficient and effective system of governance and for sustainable development.

4. Challenges of digitalization

1. Digital divide: The digital divide needs to be addressed through last mile connectivity in remote rural areas, as currently, over 55,000 villages remain deprived of mobile connectivity.
2. Accessibility: Significant efforts are needed to customize apps and services to cater to local needs.
3. Data-Security: With the proliferation of cloud-based services like DigiLocker, data security has emerged as a major challenge. 
4. Cyber Crime: is the major threat to the people of India since there are less or no internet privacy laws , people usually get exposed to cyber crimes.
5. Other challenges: Less coordination among various departments, Implementation Cost is very high, Excess time: For instance, projects like NOFN have been delayed several times and taken almost 2 year so it has also delayed other related projects.

5. Devotion to duty

1. Devotion to duty means strong feelings of loyalty, love, and admiration that a worker has for the work that enables his/her desire to exert more time, energy, and effort in carrying out his duty.
2. 3rd chapter of the Bhagavad Gita: In this chapter on Karma Yoga, Krishna exhorts Arjuna to surrender himself perfectly in his duties, free of ego, free from grief and free from desire. Krishna’s devotion to duty is an absolute immersion in the responsibilities placed on an individual by his profession, his family and his society with no fear or favour.
3. This transcendental view of devotion to duty was reflected in Swami Vivekananda’s designation of devotion to duty as the highest form of worship in his speeches in California in 1900.
4. Mahatma Gandhi’s 1929 letter in which he identified devotion to duty as prayer itself. He said, “When one is engaged in the actual practice of duty, prayer is merged with the execution of duty”.
5. Rabindranath Tagore’s announcement in his 1916 novel, The Home and the World that his work is his salvation.

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