[Model Answer QP2023 GS2]E-governance as a critical tool of governance as assured in effectiveness, transparency and accountability in governments. what inadequacies hamper the enhancement of these features?


E-governance, the use of digital technology to streamline and enhance the interaction between citizens and the government, has been hailed as a revolutionary step towards realizing the principles of transparency, accountability, and effectiveness.
India has actively sought to embed e-governance tools in its administrative machinery, as seen through initiatives like ‘Digital India.’

Advantages of E-Governance in India:

1. Increased Transparency: Real-time data accessibility ensures transparency in governmental procedures. For example, the RTI portal allows citizens to file and track RTI applications online.

2. Enhanced Effectiveness: Services like passport issuance, which earlier took months, are now delivered more efficiently through the Passport Seva Portal.

3. Improved Accountability: Platforms like MyGov foster a two-way communication between citizens and the government, ensuring accountability through feedback mechanisms

Inadequacies Hampering Enhancement of E-Governance:

1. Digital Divide: Despite strides made by programs like BharatNet, a significant portion of India’s population, especially in rural areas, remains bereft of internet access. As per TRAI, in 2021, the internet penetration rate in rural India was approximately 38%, much lower than in urban areas.

2. Cybersecurity Concerns: The increasing number of cyberattacks, such as the 2021 incident involving the Juspay data breach, highlight vulnerabilities in digital platforms.

3. Lack of Digital Literacy: Even with access, many lack the skills to utilize e-governance platforms. According to the National Digital Literacy Mission, only a fraction of India’s population is digitally literate.

4. Bureaucratic Resistance: Inherent inertia in the bureaucratic machinery can lead to resistance in adopting digital measures. This can be seen in the slow digitalization of land records across states.

5. Language Barriers: Most e-governance platforms are English-centric, sidelining a significant non-English speaking populace.

6. Infrastructure Issues: Frequent power outages in regions like Uttar Pradesh or Bihar can hamper consistent access to e-governance services.

7. Privacy Concerns: The debate around Aadhaar and potential misuse of personal data highlights the concerns many Indians have about their digital privacy.


The way forward is not just investing in infrastructure but also ensuring inclusive, secure, and user-friendly platforms that empower every Indian. Periodic reviews, feedback mechanisms, and collaborations with tech experts can aid in refining the e-governance model, making it a true tool for transparent, effective, and accountable governance.

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