[Model Answer QP2023 GS3] The adoption of electric vehicles is rapidly growing worldwide. How do electric vehicles contribute to reducing carbon emissions and what are the key benefits they offer compared to traditional combustion engine vehicles?


The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) has been recognized as a significant step towards reducing the environmental impact of transportation.

EVs contribute to reducing carbon emissions:

1. Zero Tailpipe Emissions: Unlike ICE vehicles, which emit carbon dioxide, particulate matter, and other pollutants from their exhaust pipes, EVs have zero tailpipe emissions. This means that in areas with a high concentration of vehicles, like urban centers, EVs can contribute to significantly better air quality.

2. Lower Carbon Intensity Over Lifetime: While manufacturing an EV, especially the battery, might have a higher carbon footprint than producing a conventional car, the overall emissions over the vehicle’s lifetime are often lower, especially when charged with renewable energy sources.

3. Efficiency: Electric motors are typically 85-90% efficient in converting energy to movement, while ICEs are only about 20-30% efficient. This means that less energy is wasted in EVs.

Key Benefits of Electric Vehicles:

1. Cost-Efficiency: Electricity, especially from renewable sources, can be cheaper than gasoline or diesel. Additionally, EVs generally have fewer moving parts than ICE vehicles, which can result in lower maintenance costs over the vehicle’s lifetime.

2. Performance Advantages: Electric vehicles can offer smoother acceleration and deceleration. They also have a low center of gravity, which can improve handling, comfort, and safety.

3. Noise Pollution: EVs tend to operate much quieter than their ICE counterparts, especially at low speeds. This can significantly reduce noise pollution in urban areas.

4. Energy Diversity: EVs provide an opportunity to diversify energy sources, reducing dependence on petroleum. This can be particularly strategic for countries that rely heavily on oil imports.

5. Innovative Features: Many EVs come integrated with advanced technologies, including regenerative braking systems, advanced infotainment systems, and autonomous driving features.

6. Health Benefits: By reducing air pollution, EVs can contribute to better public health outcomes. Air pollution is linked to various health problems, including respiratory diseases, heart diseases, and even premature death.

7. Support for Renewable Energy Integration: EVs, especially when combined with smart grid technologies, can be charged during periods of low electricity demand and high renewable energy generation, helping to balance the grid and increase the penetration of renewables.


As renewable energy sources continue to grow, the benefits of EVs in reducing carbon emissions will become even more pronounced.

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