[Model Answer QP2023 GS4 ETHICS] What are the major teachings of Guru Nanak. Explain their relevance in the contemporary world.


Guru Nanak (1469-1539) was the founder of Sikhism, and his teachings was encapsulated in the Guru Granth Sahib are profound and timeless.

Major teachings of Guru Nanak and their relevance in the contemporary world:

1. Oneness of God (Ik Onkar) Teaching:

Guru Nanak preached the existence of one universal God who is beyond any form or gender. The Mool Mantra, which is the first composition in the Guru Granth Sahib, begins with “Ik Onkar,” signifying this oneness.

Contemporary Relevance: In a world with numerous religious conflicts, the idea of a universal God promotes interfaith understanding, unity, and harmony.

2. Equality and Brotherhood Teaching:

Guru Nanak emphasized that all humans are equal irrespective of caste, creed, gender, or socio-economic status. He introduced the concept of “Sangat” (congregation) where everyone sits together, promoting equality.

Contemporary Relevance:
In an age when discrimination and inequality are still prevalent, this teaching underscores the importance of egalitarianism and the recognition of universal human rights.

3. Honest Living (Kirat Karni) Teaching:

Guru Nanak promoted the idea of earning one’s livelihood through honest means. He said, “He who earns his living by honest labor and shares it with others, O Nanak, he alone knows the way to God.”

Contemporary Relevance: Today’s world, riddled with corruption and dishonest means of success, can greatly benefit from this principle, leading to more ethical and transparent societies.

4. Selfless Service (Seva) Teaching:

Guru Nanak emphasized the importance of selfless service to humanity. He introduced the concept of “Langar,” a community kitchen where food is served to everyone regardless of their background.

Contemporary Relevance: This teaching inspires community service, charity, and humanitarian efforts, emphasizing the importance of altruism in today’s individualistic world.
5. Remembrance of God (Naam Japna) Teaching:

Guru Nanak advocated the constant remembrance of God’s name as a means to stay spiritually connected and find inner peace.

Contemporary Relevance: Amidst the fast-paced modern world, this teaching reminds individuals to find moments of introspection, mindfulness, and spiritual connection, helping combat stress and existential crises.
6. Reject Rituals Teaching:

Guru Nanak was critical of mindless rituals and superstitions. He emphasized that true devotion is not in rituals but in understanding and love towards God and fellow beings.

Contemporary Relevance: In an era where many religious practices can be commercialized or ritualistic without understanding, this teaching encourages genuine spirituality and understanding.
7. Gender Equality Teaching:

Guru Nanak championed the cause of women at a time when they were highly marginalized. He famously said, “From woman, man is born; within woman, man is conceived; to a woman, he is engaged and married. Why call her bad? From her, kings are born.”  

Contemporary Relevance: Gender equality is still a global issue, and Guru Nanak’s teachings emphasize the essential role and respect women should have in society.


Guru Nanak’s teachings, provide solutions to many of the issues plaguing modern societies, emphasizing harmony, equality, honesty, and spiritual connection. Adopting these teachings can lead to a more peaceful, inclusive, and compassionate world.

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