Modern History Simplified: First Anglo-Maratha War (1775-1782)

First Anglo-Maratha War
  1. The third Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao died in 1761 due to shock after his defeat at the Third Battle of Panipat.
  2. Madhavrao I (Son of Peshwa Bai Rao) was able to recover some of the Maratha power and territories which they had lost in the Battle of Panipat.
  3. Post the death of Madhavrao, there was now a tussle for succession between his brother Narayanrao who became the Peshwa and his uncle Raghunathrao.
  4. The British and army of Raghunathrao attacked the Peshwa and won.
  5. Treaty of Surat in 1775: According to which Raghunathrao ceded Salsette and Bassein to the English and in return he was given 2500 soldiers.
  6. The treaty of Surat was later annulled and Treaty of Purandhar was signed in 1776 in which Raghunathrao was paid pension only and Salsette was retained by the British.
  7. Later Nana Phadnavis, a Maratha minister granted a port to the French. This led the British to attack Marathas at Wadgaon in Pune. 
  8. Marathas under Mahadji Shinde secured a decisive victory over the English and the English were forced to sign the Treaty of Wadgaon in 1779.
  9. There was a series of battles at the end of which the Treaty of Salbai was signed under Warren Hastings in 1782. This ended the first Anglo-Maratha war. It also obtained a guarantee from the Marathas that they would retake their possessions in the Deccan from Hyder Ali of Mysore.
  10. The English accepted Madhavrao II (son of Narayanrao) as the Peshwa. Also all territories taken by the British after the Treaty of Purandhar were ceded back to the Marathas. 

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