Modern History Simplified: Government of India Act of 1935

Government of India Act of 1935
  1. All India Federation: It provided for an establishment of an All India Federation consisting of provinces and princely states as units. However Federation never came into being as the princely states did not join it. 
  2. Separation of Powers: The Act Divided the powers between the Centre and the provinces into three lists:
    1. Federal List
    2. Provincial List 
    3. Concurrent List 
  3. Residuary Powers vests with the Governor General or the Viceroy.
  4. Dyarchy: was abolished in the provinces and was introduced at the Centre [i.e. subjects divided into transferred and reserved subjects handled by ministers and executive council respectively].
  5. Provincial Autonomy: Provinces derived their power and authority directly from the British Crown. They were given independent financial powers and resources. Provincial governments could borrow money on their own security.
  6.  Responsible government in the provinces: The distinction between Reserved and Transferred Subjects was abolished and a full responsible government was established. In other words, the Governor was required to act with the advice of the ministers who are in turn responsible to the provincial legislature. 
  7. Bicameralism was introduced in the provinces.
  8. Separate Electorate: was extended to the depressed classes (Scheduled castes), Women and Labour (workers).
  9. The Council of India (Established in Government of India Act 1858 to assist the Secretary of State) was abolished. 
  10. Franchise: About 10% of the total population got the voting rights. Hence Franchise was extended. 
  11. Reserve Bank of India: was established to control the currency and credit of the country. 
  12. Public service Commission: Federal, Provincial and Joint (For two or more provinces) Public service commission was set up. 
  13. Federal Court: was established in 1937 with original and appellate powers, to interpret the 1935 Act and settle inter-state disputes, but the Privy Council in London was to dominate this court.

The 1935 Act was condemned by nearly all sections and unanimously rejected by the Congress. The Congress demanded, instead, convening of a Constituent Assembly elected on the basis of adult franchise to frame a constitution for independent India.

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