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Kol Mutiny (1830s)
- The Kols are inhabitants of Chhotanagpur which included Ranchi, Singhbhum, Hazaribagh, Palamau and Manbhum.
- The trouble in 1831 started with large-scale transfers of land from Kol headmen to outsiders like Hindu, Sikh and Muslim farmers and money-lenders who were oppressive and demanded heavy taxes.
- Besides, the British judicial and revenue policies badly affected the traditional social conditions of the Kols.
- Under the leadership of Buddho Bhagat, the Kol rebels killed or burnt about a thousand outsiders.
- Only after large-scale military operations could order be restored.