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Temple Entry Movement (1880s, 1920s and 1930s)
- Aruvippuram movement (1888) by Narayan Guru and Kumaran Asan was the first temple entry movement.
- T.K. Madhavan, a prominent social reformer and editor of Deshabhimani, took up the issue of temple entry with the Travancore administration.
- Vaikom Satyagraha (Travancore)–1924:
- It was led by K.P. Kesava and launched in Kerala demanding the throwing open of Hindu temples and roads to the untouchables.
- The satyagraha was reinforced by jathas from Punjab and Madurai.
- Gandhi undertook a tour of Kerala in support of the movement.
- Guruvayur Satyagraha (1931)
- Again in 1931 when the Civil Disobedience Movement was suspended, a temple entry movement was organised in Kerala.
- Inspired by K. Kelappan, poet Subramaniyam Tirumambu (the ‘singing sword of Kerala’) led a group of sixteen volunteers to Guruvayur.
- Leaders like P. Krishna Pillai and A.K. Gopalan were among the satyagrahis.
- Finally, in 1936, the Maharaja of Travancore issued a proclamation throwing open all government-controlled temples to all Hindus.