For the first time since Surat’s split in 1907, moderates and extremists met in this session, thanks largely to Annie Besant’s efforts. Ambica Charan Majumdar presided over the Lucknow Session of 1916.
During this session, both the Congress and the Muslim League signed a pact in which a few items were added without regard for the consequences.
These included a proposal to give Muslims one-third representation in central government, separate electorates for communities and so on.
Montagu Declaration 1917
Edwin Samuel Montagu, was a Secretary of State for India.
Increasing Association of Indians in Every Branch of Administration, and the Gradual Development of Self-Governing Institutions with a View to the Progressive Realisation of Responsible Governments in India as an Integral Part of the British Empire.
Annie Besant called it “unworthy of England to offer and India to accept,” and Tilak called it a “sunless dawn.”
Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms and Government of India Act 1919
This act is referred to as a step toward the “end of benevolent despotism” and the establishment of responsible government.
The subjects of making law were defined in this act for the central and provincial governments.
Dyarchy was introduced in the provinces. (Reserved subjects and Transferred Subjects).
Direct Elections were established.
Women were given the right to vote.
Establishment of Public Service Commission.
Rowlatt Act (1919)
Based on the findings of the Rowlatt Committee, the government enacted the 1919 Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act, also known as the Rowlatt Act.
This act empowered the government to imprison anyone suspected of terrorism for up to two years without a trial.
Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy 1919
On Baisakhi Day, April 13, 1919, more than 5,000 people gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, unaware that such gatherings are illegal.
The British General perceived it as a conspiracy. Despite the fact that the crowd was peaceful and unarmed, the General ordered that it be fired upon.