AO Hume laid the groundwork for the Indian National Congress, among other things, during his term in office in 1885.
He established the Imperial Service Corps, which was led by Indians, laying the groundwork for the modern Indian Army.
In 1888, he published a Report on the Conditions of the Lower Classes of Bengali Population (known as the Dufferin Report). The report highlighted the plight of the poor in Bengal and was used by nationalists to refute the Anglo-Indian claim that British rule had benefited India’s poorest citizens.
Panjdeh Incident: This incident occurred in 1885 as a result of Russia’s constant expansion policy toward Afghanistan. Russians occupied Panjdeh in Afghanistan in 1884. Both the British and Russian militaries began preparing for a full-fledged war. However, the war was averted thanks to Lord Dufferin’s diplomatic efforts.
Third Burmese War (1885-1886):
It all started with a disagreement between the Burmese government and the Bombay-Burma Trading Corporation, an English company. This company was awarded a contract to manage the forests.
The Burmese government accused it of tax evasion and the charge was established.
The English Commissioner requested that the Burmese government exempt the company from the penalty for which the Burmese adamantly opposed. Lord Dufferin directed the English army to march on Mandalay. King Thibaw declared war on the English as well.
The English easily occupied Mandalay. King Thibaw voluntarily surrendered. A proclamation in January 1866 annexed Burma to the British empire.