Modern History Simplified: Learn all about Lord Irwin [Viscount Halifax] (1926-1931)– Viceroy of India and his achievements.

  1. The Simon Commission Report, the Nehru Report, the All Parties Conference, Jinnah’s 14 Points, the Civil Disobedience Movement, Round Table Conferences, and a variety of other issues had made his regime extremely stressful.
  2. Simon Commission
    1. According to the provisions of the GOI Act 1919, the Simon Commission visited India in 1927 to investigate the progress of the governance scheme and suggest new reform steps.
    2. This commission had no Indian members, and its seven members were drawn from three British political parties. This provided Congress with an excellent opportunity to develop an agenda.
    3. They protested that the Simon commission was there to deprive them of their right to participate in the formation of their own country’s constitution.
    4. The Madras session of the Congress passed a resolution advocating a boycott of the Simon Commission at all stages and in all forms.
  3. Nehru Report, 1928
    1. The secretary of state for India, Lord Birkenhead, challenged congressmen to draft an Indian constitution.
    2. In 1928, to prepare the draft constitution, all political parties formed a committee led by Motilal Nehru. It was known as the Nehru Committee Report, and it was presented on August 28, 1928, at the Lucknow conference of all parties.
  4. Lahore Session, 1929
    1. Adopted the Poorna Swaraj, or complete independence, resolution in Lahore.
    2. If the British parliament accepted the Nehru report by December 31, 1929, Congress would accept dominion status in its entirety. If the British parliament does not accept the report by December 31, 1929, then congress will demand complete independence and organise a nonviolent civil disobedience movement.  
  5. Chittagong Armory Raid, 1930
    1. The plan was to seize Chittagong’s two main armories and then destroy the Telegraph and telephone offices.
    2. This conspiracy was carried out by 65 people under the guise of the Indian Republican Army.
    3. After that, all of the revolutionaries gathered outside the police armory, where leader Surya Sen took a military salute, hoisted the National Flag, and declared a Provisional Revolutionary Government.
  6. Dandi March (1930) to launch Civil Disobedience Movement
    1. The Dandi  march was a direct action campaign of tax resistance and nonviolent protest against the British salt monopoly that lasted from March 12th to April 6th, 1930.
    2. Civil disobedience erupted throughout India, involving millions of Indians.
  7. Gandhi-Irwin Pact, 1931
    1. Gandhi would discontinue the Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM);
    2. Congress would participate in the Second Round Table Conference;
    3. The ordinance enacted in response to the CDM would be withdrawn;
    4. Those detained in connection with the CDM would be released;
    5. People living near the sea coast would be allowed to collect duty-free salt;
    6. The government would allow peaceful picketing of liquor stores.

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