Modern History Simplified: Learn all about Lord Lansdowne (1888-1894)- Viceroy of India and his achievements.

  1. Indian Factory Act, 1891 was passed. The act dealt with:
    1. Children’s minimum (from 7 to 9 years) and maximum (from 12 to 14 years) ages have been raised.
    2. Children’s maximum working hours have been reduced to 7 hours per day.
    3. Maximum working hours for women were set at 11 hours per day, with a one-and-a-half hour interval, while men’s working hours were unregulated.
    4. Everyone was given a weekly holiday.
    5. These laws, however, did not apply to British-owned tea and coffee plantations, where labour was ruthlessly exploited and treated as slaves.
  2. Aitchison Commission: Categorizing of Civil Services into imperial, provisional, and subordinate
    1. The government’s civilian officers were divided into three classes: Imperial Indian Civil Service, Provincial Civil Service, and Subordinate Civil Service.
    2. The first was still being recruited in England, but it was open to Indians who could travel to England and take the exam there.
    3. The other two services were recruited in India, and the majority of the recruits were Indians.
    4. This plan established provincial civil services beneath the Indian Civil Service and Subordinate civil services were established under the provincial civil service.
  3. Indian Council Act (1892)
    1. Members were permitted to ask questions about domestic issues with the Governor General’s prior approval. 
    2. To elect members of the councils, an indirect election system was implemented. Members of provincial councils can be nominated by universities, district boards, municipalities, Zamindars, and chambers of commerce.
    3. This act was the first step toward the establishment of a representative government in India, but such representation was only through indirect elections.
  4. Setting up Durand Commission (1893)
    1. Lansdowne devoted most of his time and energy to resolving the border issue.
    2. The Durand Line agreement was signed to secure the north-west of British India.
  5. Age of Consent Act, 1891
    1. Raising the age of consent for sexual intercourse for all girls, married or unmarried, from ten to twelve years in all jurisdictions, with violations punishable as rape.

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