1. In 1871, he ordered the first census of India, which produced a general picture of the subcontinent’s various peoples and population size.
2. He was in charge of the Indian Statistical Survey.
3. Establishment of the Departments of Revenue, Agriculture, and Commerce.
4. Lord Mayo was interested in prison reforms, particularly convict settlements on the Andaman Islands.
5. The passage of the Indian Evidence Act in 1872 was the most significant legal reform during his tenure. This Act established a uniform set of laws that applied to all Indians. Previously, the legal system was differentiated and applied according to the caste, community, and social group in question.
6. Established the State Railway system.
7. Mayo’s resolution of 1870 kicked off the path of financial decentralisation. He gave provinces the authority to use local taxation to balance their budgets.
8. He spoke vehemently about the necessity of primary education among Indians.
In India, he is best known for the infrastructure projects he oversaw and the educational institutions he founded.