Modern History Simplified: Learn all about Lord Minto-II (1905-1910)- Viceroy of India and his achievements.

  1. Surat Split of Congress (1907): 
    1. The Moderate-Extremist divide erupted in December 1905, at the Banaras session of the Indian National Congress presided over by Gokhale. 
    2. The extremists wished to expand the Boycott and Swadeshi Movements beyond Bengal and to include all types of associations.
    3. The Moderates, on the other hand, were opposed to expanding the movement beyond Bengal and were vehemently opposed to boycotting councils and other similar organisations.
    4. Surat Session 1907 saw the emergence of growing schisms between the Moderates and the Extremists. 
    5. As a result, the Moderates decided to split and hence, the Congress split at Surat in December 1907.
  2. Establishment of Muslim League
    1. The establishment of the Muslim League was an attempt by the British to identify Muslims as a separate political entity.
    2. Lord Minto invited all Muslim leaders to Shimla in 1906 and proposed the formation of the Muslim League. 
    3.  Nawab Salimullah, who was instrumental in the partition of Bengal, was also instrumental in the formation of the Muslim League. 
    4. Aga Khan was the Muslim League’s first President.
  3. Morley-Minto Reforms (1909) / Indian Council Act of 1909
    1. The Communal Electorate was introduced and hence Lord Minto became known as the Father of the Communal Electorate in India.
    2. Granting separate electorates altered the power dynamics of the Indian Independence struggle.

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