Modern History Simplified: Learn all about Lord Willingdon (1931-1936)– Viceroy of India and his achievements.

  1. Second Round Table Conference
    1. The Second Round Table convened in England. Sarojini Naidu represented Indian women, while Gandhi represented the Indian National Congress.
    2. This conference drew a large number of Indian delegates, including loyalists, communalists, careerists, big landlords, prince representatives, and others.
    3. The conference was deadlocked as the minority groups such as  Muslims, Dalits, Christians, Anglo-Indians, and Europeans demanded separate electorates.
  2. Civil Disobedience Movement (1931-34)
    1. Congress decided to restart the Civil Disobedience Movement after Gandhi returned from London. However, Gandhi was arrested within a week.
    2. The government dealt with the movement harshly. Congress, as well as other political parties, were declared illegal. The parties’ offices and funds were seized. The police had taken over all of Gandhi’s ashrams. The movement was crushed in a matter of months
  3. Communal Award / MacDonald Award (1932)
    1. It was announced after the Round Table Conference (1930–32) and extended the separate electorate to the depressed Classes (now known as the Scheduled Caste) and other minorities.
  4. Poona Pact (1932)
    1. Gandhi’s fast unto death in jail to protest British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald’s decision to give separate electorates to the oppressed classes. Gandhi felt that such measure would then create problem to end discrimination and untouchability as the move by the british legitimises discrimination. 
    2. The Poona Pact was an agreement reached in 1932 between Mahatma Gandhi and B. R. Ambedkar on behalf of the oppressed classes and upper caste Hindu leaders (Madan Mohan Malviya) regarding the reservation of electoral seats for the oppressed classes instead of a separate electorate in British India’s legislature.
  5. Third Round Table Conference (1932)
    1.  Held in London and Congress was not invited. 
    2. In this, Chaudhary Rahmat Ali, a college student, proposed the name Pakistan, a new “holy land” carved out of India for Muslims.
    3. At the conclusion of the conference, a White Paper was issued, upon which the Government of India Act, 1935 was drafted.
  6. Government of India Act, 1935
    1. It called for the formation of an All-India federation with provinces and princely states as units. However, because princely states did not join, this federation never came to fruition.
    2. It divided powers between the center and the units into three lists: federal, provincial, and concurrent
    3. The Viceroy was given residuary powers
    4. It abolished dyarchy in the provinces and replaced it with ‘provincial autonomy.’
    5. The act established responsible government in provinces, requiring the governor to act on the advice of ministers accountable to the provincial legislature.

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