Questions and Model Answers of GS4(Ethics) UPSC Mains Exam 2020

Q1. (a) Discuss the role of ethics and values in enhancing the following three major components of Comprehensive National Power (CNP) viz. human capital, soft power (culture and policies) and social harmony. 
Q1. (b) “Education is not an injunction, it is an effective and pervasive tool for all round development of an individual and social transformation”. Examine the New Education Policy, 2020 (NEP, 2020) in light of the above statement.
Q2. (a) “Hatred is destructive of a person’s wisdom and conscience that can poison a nation’s spirit.’ Do you agree with this view? Justify your answer.
Q2. (b) What are the main components of emotional intelligence (EI)? Can they be learned? Discuss.
Q3. (a) What teachings of Buddha are most relevant today and why? Discuss.
Q3. (b) “The will to power exists, but it can be tamed and be guided by rationality and principles of moral duty.’ Examine this statement in the context of international relations.
Q4. (a) Distinguish between laws and rules. Discuss the role of ethics in formulating them.
Q4. (b) A positive attitude is considered to be an essential characteristic of a civil servant who is often required to function under extreme stress. What contributes to a positive attitude in a person?
Q5. (a) What are the main factors responsible for gender inequality in India? Discuss the contribution of Savitribai Phule in this regard.
Q5. (b) “The current internet expansion has instilled a different set of cultural values which are often in conflict with traditional values.’ Discuss. 
Q6. What do each of the following quotations mean to you?
Q6. (a) “Condemn none: if you can stretch out a helping hand, do so. If not, fold your hands, bless your brothers, and let them go their own way.” – Swami Vivekanand
Q6. (b) “The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.” – Mahatma Gandhi 
Q6. (c) “A system of morality which is based on relative emotional values is a mere illusion, a thoroughly vulgar conception which has nothing sound in it and nothing true.” – Socrates

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