Questions and Model Answers of GS4(Ethics) UPSC Mains Exam 2022

PART 1 Ethics (Theory part):  

1a. Wisdom lies in knowing what to reckon with and what to overlook. An officer being engrossed with the periphery, ignoring the core issues before him, is not rare in bureaucracy. Do you agree that such preoccupation of an administrator leads to travesty of justice to the cause of effective service delivery and good governance? Critically evaluate.
1b. Apart from intellectual competency and moral qualities, empathy and compassion are some of the other vital attributes that facilitate the civil servants to be more competent in tackling the crucial issues or taking critical decisions. Explain with suitable illustrations.
2a. The rules and regulations provided to all the civil servants are same, yet there is difference in the performance. Positive minded officers are able to interpret the Rules and Regulations in favour of the case and achieve success, whereas negative minded officers are unable to achieve goals by interpreting the same Rules and Regulations against the case. Discuss with illustrations.
2b. It is believed that adherence to ethics in human actions would ensure in smooth functioning of an organisation/system. If so, what does ethics seek to promote in human life? How do ethical values assist in the resolution of conflicts faced by him in his day to day functioning?

3. What does each of the following quotations mean to you?

3a.”Ethics is knowing the difference between what you have the right to do and what is right to do” – Potter Stewart
3b.  “If a country is to be corruption free and become a nation of beautiful minds, I strongly feel that there are three key societal members who can make a difference. They are father, mother and teacher”. – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
3c. “Judge your success by what you had to give up in order to get it”. – Dalai Lama
4a. What do you understand by the term ‘good governance’? How far recent initiatives in terms of e-Governance steps taken by the State have helped the beneficiaries? Discuss with suitable examples.
4b. Online methodology is being used for day-to-day meetings, institutional approvals in the administration and for teaching and learning in education sector to the extent telemedicine in the health sector is getting popular with the approvals of the competent authority. No doubt, it has advantages and disadvantages for both the beneficiaries and the system at large. Describe and discuss the ethical issues involved in the use of online method particularly to the vulnerable section of the society.
5a. Russia and Ukraine war has been going on for the last seven months. Different countries have taken independent stands and actions keeping in view their own national interests. We are all aware that war has its own impact on the different aspects of society, including human tragedy. What are those ethical issues that are crucial to be considered while launching the war and its continuation so far? Illustrate with justification the ethical issues involved in the given state of affair.
5B. Write short notes on the following in 30 words each:
1. Constitutional morality
2. Conflict of Interest 
3. Probity in public life
4. Challenges of digitalization
5. Devotion to duty
6a. Whistle-blower, who reports corruption, and illegal activities, wrongdoing and misconduct to the concerned authorities, runs the risk of being exposed to grave danger, physical harm and victimization by the vested interests, accused persons and his team. What policy measures would you suggest to strengthen protection mechanism to safeguard the whistle-blower?
6b. In contemporary world, corporate sector’s contribution in generating wealth and employment is increasing. In doing so, they are bringing in unprecedented onslaught on the climate, environmental sustainability and living conditions of human beings. In this background, do you find that Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is efficient and sufficient enough to fulfill the social roles and responsibilities needed in the corporate world for which the CSR is mandated? Critically examine.


PART 1 Ethics (Theory part):  

Lengthy: The paper seemed lengthy as the questions in part 1 were made lengthy and most of the questions demanded illustration as well.
Content: The questions asked provide wide scope to the candidates to write ethically with creativity and out-of-the box thinking. However, in managing time, this becomes really difficult.
Syllabus: Except for a question on CSR and International ethics, most of the questions seem to be from “Public/Civil Service Values and Ethics in Public Administration”. 
Overall the difficulty of the paper is intermediate. The difficult part would be time management and writing an answer within the time period with ethical justifications and illustrations.

PART 2 Ethics (Case studies paper):

Hope you could finish the paper in its completeness. GOOD LUCK.

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